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  • About Journal

     
       The quarterly of  qande-i-parsi ( journal of Persian Language and Literature) publishes new scholarly findings of scholars in the field of Persian language and literature in order to develop and promote Persian literature and Islamic-Iranian culture. The acceptance of articles in this journal depends on meeting the following scholarly conditions:
       1.The article should be original, analytical and be the result of scholarly researches of the author(s)
       2.The scientific methodology should be followed in writing the article and original, authentic up-to-date sources should be used.
       3.This journal covers all research related to Persian language and literature.but Articles that are subject to criticism and analysis are prioritized .
       4.It is essential to comply with the journal's style sheet.

          Note: after receiving, the article is first evaluated by the editorial board and it will be sent to reviewers if it enjoys the necessary conditions. After receiving the views and suggestions of the reviewers, the results and acquired scores of the article are discussed in the editorial board and the article will be published if acquires enough scores and acceptance.


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Literary position of Hatefi in contemporary research
      seyedali keramatimoqadam seyedamene hoseyni
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      Hatefi Khargerdi one of the great poets of the Timuri period. He finished Pre-primary education in Khargerd. then He went to Herat and for many years he was a student of Abdul Rahman Jami. he was in his care and education. Although at the beginning imposed from poets Full Text
      Hatefi Khargerdi one of the great poets of the Timuri period. He finished Pre-primary education in Khargerd. then He went to Herat and for many years he was a student of Abdul Rahman Jami. he was in his care and education. Although at the beginning imposed from poets such as Ferdowsi and nezami and created his works by imitating them But he was able to take initiatives. Hatefi's literary creativity in poetry has made him one of the prominent poets of the ninth and tenth centuries of Herat and one of the most talented poets. Although Hatefi was a great poet and he was famous in his time but in recent years researchers have paid less attention to the literary position of Hatefi. Now the question is: Researchers in recent times in their works what is the place for a hatefi? and what image they have drawn from him in the minds of the readers? This research has been criticized articles that are written about Hatefi in the recent period. In the following is described Hatefi position of literary based on the discussed issues in contemporary research. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Historical analysis of Hafez's sonnets, during the reign of Shah Sheikh Abu Ishaq Inju
      Ali mohammadi amirafshin farhadiyan
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      No text, as a phenomenon, is free from the influence of external elements, and without a doubt, social and political events are among the most important and effective external factors. The historical approach to Hafiz's poetry, although less well known, can help to unde Full Text
      No text, as a phenomenon, is free from the influence of external elements, and without a doubt, social and political events are among the most important and effective external factors. The historical approach to Hafiz's poetry, although less well known, can help to understand many of the difficult, ambiguous, and seemingly scattered aspects of his poetry, relying on recorded historical facts. Among the important historical events of Hafiz's era, the events of the end of the reign of Shah Sheikh Abu Ishaq Inju, due to its profound impact on Hafiz and the change in his life path, have a special place. There was a deep friendship between Hafez and Shah Abu Ishaq, who was a chivalrous and lavish and who respected the people of grace and art, and his reign over Shiraz was one of the best days of Hafez's life. After the defeat of Shah Inju by Amir Mobarez al-Din Mohammad Mozaffari, the page of the time suddenly returned and the poet's dark days came. Undoubtedly, this change and the revolution of the time had a strong reflection in Hafez's poems, which used poetry as a tool to express ideas, positions, and even struggles. Hafez scholars who have reflected the political and historical events of HafIz's time in his works have considered a total of 50 lyric poems to be related to the end of Abu Ishaq's work. We have arranged these poems in order of utilization of the consensus of researchers, from the highest to the lowest, and after confronting each other, we have analyzed the opinions of each and its correspondence with the recorded historical events of that time. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - بررسی درون¬مایه¬های آموزشی- مهارتی و تربیتی- اخلاقی داستان¬های منتخب کودک ایران و جهان
      sajad najafi behzadi fateme salehi
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      انتخاب نوع درون¬مایه داستان¬های کودک و نوجوان از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. آنچه از روزگار گذشته تا اکنون در داستان¬های کودکان دیده می¬شود، درون¬مایه¬های اخلاقی و تربیتی است. این نوع درون¬مایه¬ها دارای پیام¬های ارزشمندی هستند که کودک را در رشد و تعالی اخلاقی یاری می¬دهند Full Text
      انتخاب نوع درون¬مایه داستان¬های کودک و نوجوان از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. آنچه از روزگار گذشته تا اکنون در داستان¬های کودکان دیده می¬شود، درون¬مایه¬های اخلاقی و تربیتی است. این نوع درون¬مایه¬ها دارای پیام¬های ارزشمندی هستند که کودک را در رشد و تعالی اخلاقی یاری می¬دهند. کودک امروز علاوه بر مسایل اخلاقی و تربیتی، به آموزش مهارت¬های زندگی نیز نیاز دارد. هدف این جستار بررسی و تحلیل درون¬مایه¬های تربیتی، اخلاقی و مهارتی داستان¬های منتخب کودک ایران و جهان است. روش تحقیق به صورت تحلیل محتوا و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات نیز اسنادی و کتابخانه¬ای است. آثار بررسی شده از داستان¬های منتخب کودکان و از انتشارات کانون پرورش فکری کودک و نوجوان هستند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که با بررسی درون¬مایه 45 داستان منتخب از 30 نویسنده کودک ایران و جهان، درون¬مایه¬های تربیتی و اخلاقی و مهارتی به ترتیب بیشترین کاربرد را داشته¬اند. شیوه ارائه درون¬مایه در اغلب اثار بررسی شده به شکل غیر مستقیم بوده که از ویژگی¬های مثبت داستان¬ها به شمار می¬رود. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Investigating and Analyzing Theatrical Abilities in Ancient Persian Literature and Prose Literature
      hamzeh  mohammadi dahcheshmeh shima karbasi
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      Iranian literature is one of the hallmarks of Iran's long-standing civilization that embodies the customs and art of this land.The play is also a literary genre that has long been prevalent in the culture of this land and has remained in the form of mourning, surrealism Full Text
      Iranian literature is one of the hallmarks of Iran's long-standing civilization that embodies the customs and art of this land.The play is also a literary genre that has long been prevalent in the culture of this land and has remained in the form of mourning, surrealism,glorifying dances,painting,similitude and ta'ziyeh and more.Ancient Persian literature cannot be regarded as a stand-alone literature,but since ancient Persian literature and art have the same source,It can be said that the writings of the Iranian artist's literatures have been marked by the art of the show,and the dramatic literature has long been synonymous with other arts such as music and painting alongside literature.Persian literature is illustrative and meaningful and encourages the audience to visualize the text in order to get better And it is from this that an artistic interaction is formed between the writer and the reader,and by the act of reading and performing them,the dramatic capacity of the works is manifested.There is no doubt that ancient literature is the basis for the"representation of species"which can be seen in many works such as the works of the military,Attar,Rumi,Ferdowsi,Beihaqi, oufi, Tasuji and others.Since the play is the home of world media and one of the best known ways of enriching Iranian literature;The present study seeks to examine the dramatic capabilities of such works that remain anonymous and a powerful tool for the representation of Iranian history, art, culture and thought And express the place of these works in the field of theatrical literature. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - 1 The poet's mission in the literary theory of Hakim Nezami Ganjavi
      mehdi okhravi
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      Hakim Nezami Ganjavi is one of the thinkers who has a specific style and idea for his artistic and poetic activities. And clearly expresses his beliefs and convictions in any field. In today's hustle and bustle of literary schools about the mission of poetry, the poet p Full Text
      Hakim Nezami Ganjavi is one of the thinkers who has a specific style and idea for his artistic and poetic activities. And clearly expresses his beliefs and convictions in any field. In today's hustle and bustle of literary schools about the mission of poetry, the poet pays close attention to a literary perspective such as Nezami. And expresses the precise thoughts of a classical and ideological poet, as an intellectual and philosophical structure alongside the early and late literary schools, and shows the position of the content of the word and the mission of the orator in a particular period. Our task in this research is to extract and compile Hakim Ganjeh's view on the poet's mission, within the intellectual framework of Ganjavi and his temporal and spatial realm. Examining the direct and sometimes indirect allusions of the poet through his works throughout Khamseh and Divan, showed well that he has a great mission for the heavenly essence of poetry, which prevents the poet from absurdity, linguistic style and nonsense. . He considers the most important missions of the poet to be hope, happiness, religiosity, knowledge, honor of speech, spreading wisdom, cultivating religion and praising God, and explains the importance of each in his own style and manner. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Mystical secrets and expressive secrets in Rumi's Masnavi
      fazel abbaszade Mehrdad Aghaei
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      At the beginning of the Masnavi, Rumi describes the mystical thirst for the separation of the spiritual soul from its origin with the sorrowful language of the reed, with the heartfelt melody and sincere sighs of the reed. This letter is an excerpt from the six books Full Text
      At the beginning of the Masnavi, Rumi describes the mystical thirst for the separation of the spiritual soul from its origin with the sorrowful language of the reed, with the heartfelt melody and sincere sighs of the reed. This letter is an excerpt from the six books of the spiritual Masnavi and also an explicit proof of all the poems of this literary and mystical treasure, which paints a picture of separation and mourning from the very beginning. The point to be considered is the meaning of the words "anecdote" and "complaint" in the first verse of Masnavi, which has been described by several commentators and each of them has had a specific interpretation of it. This article intends to evaluate and critique some of the meanings proposed by a number of commentators by descriptive-analytical method and in proving the alleged meanings and concepts, the subject is divided into two axes: the vertical context of the letter and the proportional and contradictory context of the word. Discuss and analyze with mystical houses, valleys and authorities. The results of the research indicate that the mystical topics in any literary work, including the spiritual Masnavi, are so extensive and rich in content that everyone can understand it to the best of their knowledge. The concept of "complaint" in the letter is not a protest complaint expressed by some commentators, but "disgust" of separation, "description of the pain of longing" and "lamentation" and romantic prayers that Rumi in the vertical axis of its poetry. Has decrypted. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - The Bibliography of Houshang Moradi Kermani’s Works
      Farshad Eskandari Sharafi Ali Bazvand
      Issue 10 , Volume 4 , Spring 2021
      Houshang Moradi Kermani is a well-known writer and stylist in Iran who has had a profound effect on flourishing modern juvenile literature producing an abundant of unique works. Indeed, he tries to depict juvenile world, their issues and concerns in life. The current st Full Text
      Houshang Moradi Kermani is a well-known writer and stylist in Iran who has had a profound effect on flourishing modern juvenile literature producing an abundant of unique works. Indeed, he tries to depict juvenile world, their issues and concerns in life. The current study, which is a kind of descriptive-analytic ones applying library sources, aims to both present a brief biography of this writer and investigate his works in juvenile literature comprehensively. The findings reveal that he has produced 8 story collections, 10 novels, 1 autobiography, 3 plays, 3 scenarios, and 3 literary messages during his five decades of writing and literary activity. Most of these works are translated into different languages including German, English, French, Arabic, Chinese, etc. winning various national and international rewards. Besides, there are various movies, TV series, and animations produced based on his scenarios. In terms of different age range for juveniles, his works are appropriate for age groups “D”, “H”, “G” and “B” respectively. Moreover, adults can sometimes be the audience of his works. “Majid Stories” is the most well-known work in juvenile literature due to being broadcasted on TV and radio and published several times as books. Having the highest number of translation versions and winning international rewards, “khomre” is the wolrd’s most famous Iranian work in juvenile literature. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Analysis of structural features and linguistic techniques "Khosrow's Story" by Abdolhossein Vojdani
      hamzeh  mohammadi dahcheshmeh farzad mohammadi
      Issue 2 , Volume 2 , Spring 2019
      Abdolhossein Vojdani,one of Iran's most prominent writers,views his contemporary political,cultural and social developments in his stories.In his works,it is easy to see the many manifestations of culture,identity, morality,peoples,religion,which is in line with the na Full Text
      Abdolhossein Vojdani,one of Iran's most prominent writers,views his contemporary political,cultural and social developments in his stories.In his works,it is easy to see the many manifestations of culture,identity, morality,peoples,religion,which is in line with the nature of the people of Iran.The story of"Khosrow The third story from the collection of the story of"Amugholam"is the only collection of the story of Vojdani.This story is narrated from the first person,but the character of the narrator is colored against the main character of the story,Khosrow.The narrator,who had also been in class at the elementary level with Khosrow,once sees him on the street;"The opium drink had made that fearless milk a terrible skeleton" Then he recounts his youthful memories And in the story of the story,it brings in the theme of this work,which is one of the socio-cultural problems of our time and the harmful and harmful effects of addiction And at the end,he recommends that the bad guy should be avoided.Since the story reflects important social issues in each period and time, this research has been analyzed and criticized by descriptive and content analysis methodology,"Khosrow's Story"by Abdolhossein Vojdani And by examining the social structure of this work, its linguistic features and delicacies,as well as the author's particular writings for his purpose.The results of the research show that Vojdani,using literary capacities and linguistic techniques such as simile, poetry, satire, slang expressions, has been able to accompany the reader of the story with him and the final message (the effect of a bad companion). Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Western Surrealism resonates in the Water footsteps of Sepahri
      Mehrdad Aghaei fazel abbaszade susan ghayebzadeh
      Issue 6 , Volume 3 , Spring 2020
      Abstract Surrealism, with all its misgivings and confusion, has thrown so much fire into the lives of literature that it has swept across the East like a devastating slave and has swept all over the world. Sohrab Sepehri, an Iranian poet and painter and naturalist, mad Full Text
      Abstract Surrealism, with all its misgivings and confusion, has thrown so much fire into the lives of literature that it has swept across the East like a devastating slave and has swept all over the world. Sohrab Sepehri, an Iranian poet and painter and naturalist, made his surrealistic inspirations in his poetry during his travels to the East and West, as well as his acquaintance with Eastern mysticism and Western literature schools. This article seeks to introduce the school of surrealism to examine its features in Sepehri's poem "The Water footsteps." According to the evidence in this famous poem, it was concluded that Sepehri, in his poetic style in "The Water footsteps" had surpassed many of the surrealistic principles and grounded in the realities that even the Westerners themselves They need a hand. The purpose of this study is to depict the real world in a supernatural language and to reach the supreme truth through mental and spiritual affairs, by using the school of surrealism in this poet's work. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Template, image maker in vahshi bafghi poem
      ayat shokati alireza tayogh
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Winter 2019
      The image, if not the basis of the poem, is one of the main elements of its construction; the poets, by creating their poetic images, as well as displaying their imagination, reveal individual tendencies and their personal and periodic style. The study titled "The Simil Full Text
      The image, if not the basis of the poem, is one of the main elements of its construction; the poets, by creating their poetic images, as well as displaying their imagination, reveal individual tendencies and their personal and periodic style. The study titled "The Simile, the Image Format in vahshi bafghi poem, examines the poet's sonnets in terms of the quantity and quality of the images, and, using stylistic considerations, makes it clear that the poet picks up his image. In his sonnets, he seems to have used the analogy to almost metaphor according to his tendency to simplify. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Encyclopaedia components in beyhaqi History
      mouhammad amir Mashhadi Remazan Mojavvezy
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Winter 2019
      Encyclopaedia includes topics such as Love and the text of the endearing of the Mysticism and…in general, any kind of writing or work that reflects the emotions and emotions of indivduais is included, that is, all the emotion from the most subtle to the greatest of the Full Text
      Encyclopaedia includes topics such as Love and the text of the endearing of the Mysticism and…in general, any kind of writing or work that reflects the emotions and emotions of indivduais is included, that is, all the emotion from the most subtle to the greatest of them with every reality that exists, in every literary from you can trace the emotions of people. The writers efforts in this essay are to examine the components of Gana literature in Beyhaghi history by analyzing and describing it using library resources and presenting the components of the movement frequency at the end. since beyhagi on the art of portraying emotions beyhagi and in tone and its work has always felt a special place. So، doing this research، it was flet necessary. On beyhagi history، issues such as happiness and enthusiasm for festivals، recreation and hunting of umjales qaznavi and wedding nobeles and regrettable moments of death in venice death those persons can be found in abundance. Sometimes the reader by reading fiction like Hasanak vazir to cry and some times do it with sweet word allof him )her( to full of wonder These feeling are the themes of the rich literature that has been presented in the history of Beyhaghi, and it covers parts of this work in the field of this litwrary genre. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Gaz arrow and wine in the story of the battle of Rostam and Isfandiar
      asghar shahbazi
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Winter 2019
      In the story of the battle of Rostam and Isfandiar, to combinations of “Gaz arrow” and “wine” have raised questions and answers from many researchers. They have been focusing on this story and its elements from a number of viewpoints and presented various analyses. Revi Full Text
      In the story of the battle of Rostam and Isfandiar, to combinations of “Gaz arrow” and “wine” have raised questions and answers from many researchers. They have been focusing on this story and its elements from a number of viewpoints and presented various analyses. Reviewing these viewpoints, this paper tried to, firstly emphasis that structuralism interpretation of the elements of this story on the base of religious confrontation or tradition and modernity is an acceptable interpretation. Secondly, for this story and its elements a symbolic analysis can be represented and then these combinations can imply different symbolic meanings. Thirdly, the real interpretation of these elements is possible considering the documents of two books “Ajayebolmakhlooghat” [The wonders of creatures] and “Zaratooshtnameh” [book of Zaratoosht]. In that case, “Gaz arrow” and “wine” both are used in their real names having oldness and holiness used in the arrow which killed Isfandiar. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Study of the word "Baz" based on syntagmatic axis in Bal'ami History
      ebrahim estaji ریحانه صادقی
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Winter 2019
      Bal'ami History is one of the most precious old resources of Dari Farsi proses. We are researching about the effective role of prefix "Baz" in this masterpiece of Dari Farsi prose and the most important historical resource to highlight the different meanings of each w Full Text
      Bal'ami History is one of the most precious old resources of Dari Farsi proses. We are researching about the effective role of prefix "Baz" in this masterpiece of Dari Farsi prose and the most important historical resource to highlight the different meanings of each word in semantic system and in relation to the chain of speech and to eradicate the semantic ambiguity of the sentence. Accurate acquaintance of Farsi poetry and prose needs cognition of grammatical topics in the sentence. Using prefix "Baz" in different ways in the sentences have made new verbs with new meanings. In Bal'ami History the "Baz" is used in the form of name, infinitive, adjective, adverb, preposition and prefix of compound verbs. In the form of prefix of compound verbs "Baz" is in two forms, one is changed the meaning of the verb and the other doesn’t. More important point is that using the same compound verb made by prefix in different sentences resulted variety of meaning and different usages witch shows that Bal'ami's Goal was to say the precise meaning of the verb in the text of the sentence. This shows the superiority and skill of this artist and literary lover. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Analysis of The elements of story the novel of "The Burnt Earth" by Ahmad Mahmoud
      Ali Azizi ziba qalavandi seydhamzeh abedi
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Winter 2019
      Ahmad Mahmoud is one of the contemporary novelists that according the geographical location of his life who has touched the war and its events closely. He strives to highlight the problems of the war-torn people. The theme of this novel is clarifying the difficulties th Full Text
      Ahmad Mahmoud is one of the contemporary novelists that according the geographical location of his life who has touched the war and its events closely. He strives to highlight the problems of the war-torn people. The theme of this novel is clarifying the difficulties that have happened to the war-torn people. This library research has tried to analysis the elements of the story the "burnt earth" novel by Ahmad Mahmoud. View Angle is the first singular person that is expressed in the language of the main character. This novel is dealt with the story of the early months of the war and the events that took place in Ahwaz. Characters are less important than incidents and events and are marginized in this novel. The dialogues in this novel are suited to the social classes of people. The tone is serious and free from any jokes. The setting of the novel is also accompanied by fear and intimidation. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - A Study and Comparison of Interrelationship between World View and Figures of Speech in Sohrab Sepehri and Mohammadreza Shafiee Kadkani's poems.
      دکتر ساره  تربیت Mohammad Enayati Ghadikolai
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Winter 2019
      If we study and peruse works about literary criticism, we can distinguish two main perspectives: according to first perspective, belles-lettres, only reflect what is in their author's mind and text is a product of external determinant factors. Second perspective, contra Full Text
      If we study and peruse works about literary criticism, we can distinguish two main perspectives: according to first perspective, belles-lettres, only reflect what is in their author's mind and text is a product of external determinant factors. Second perspective, contrary to first perspective, focuses on belles-lettres and regards literature as a language-game. Nevertheless there are some literati who do not believe in separation between words (text) and theme (content). Albert Cammo and Lousian Goldman in the west, Saeb Tabrizi and Dr Shafiee Kadkani in Persian literature are among this group. This group declaims that there is no separation between language and thought. This article tries to compare and study interrelationship between figures of speech (as one verbal elements of text) and world view (as subjective content) in Sohrab Sepehri and Mohammadreza Shafiee Kadkani's poems by use of Lousian Goldman's genetic structuralism theory. the main objective of this paper is that shown the interaction between language and meaning in the poem if this two Contemporary poet. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Analyzing the moral teachings of Jami Selsela-Al-ZahabMasnavi
      barat mohammadi maryam haddad ghanshan
      Issue 2 , Volume 2 , Spring 2019
      Abdo-al-Rahman Jami is the prolific poet of the ninth century AH following his previous poets in teaching, mystical and lyricalliterature. In this article, his Selsela-Al-ZahabMasnavihave been studied in terms of educational topics and moral teachings. As a result of Full Text
      Abdo-al-Rahman Jami is the prolific poet of the ninth century AH following his previous poets in teaching, mystical and lyricalliterature. In this article, his Selsela-Al-ZahabMasnavihave been studied in terms of educational topics and moral teachings. As a result of this review, it can be seen that Jami as a mystic and religious preacher hadtried to teach all the religious and moral teachings to the audience. He also appeared as a sociologist in the community and had tried to convey moral teachings to the audiencethrough unstable social,religious and mysticalcriticismof his community. His teaching is along with critical thinking and have been observed with allegorical tale directly or indirectly. His critical visionmostly towards the vanity hypocriticalSufis which destroyedhuman morality by vanity of religion. Kings have been considered in the third book and Jami had taught the morals through anecdotes and stories. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Relationship between the Parthian Kings and the Kayani heroes
      mostafa seadat
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Summer 2019
      Some investigators are believed that a group of Kayani’s hero are Parthian kings (or princes) who have come to Iranian national stories. The purpose of the present article is investigating whether some of the Parthians changed from king to heroes. The change should be o Full Text
      Some investigators are believed that a group of Kayani’s hero are Parthian kings (or princes) who have come to Iranian national stories. The purpose of the present article is investigating whether some of the Parthians changed from king to heroes. The change should be occurred in the time of Parthians and Sassanids. If the changes had been occurred in the Parthians era, persons who entered the stories, must had a tremendous popularity among the people. These changes should be cause of increase the attractiveness of the stories. In the history, some of the Parthians kings which some investigators have been believed they changed to epic heroes, do not show any courage for the cultural development of the country, their actions are not logical and governed by justice and humanity. These changes cannot be related to the Sasanian era. We do not know any Parthian king and prince who had been so popular that the Sasanians had not succeeded in brushing him out of collective memory. If there was a very popular person, it is unacceptable that the Sassanians have allowed him to enter the national stories. Name is a tool for identifying people. There is no reason why the names of ordinary people with kings and hero cannot be identical, and it is not strange that a name be popular for a long time. Despite the fact that the heroes of the Kayani era can have historical reality, they are not equally to persons of the Parthian period. Manuscript Document
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